Influences and leverages on low levels of attainment: a review of literature
and policy initiatives
(2009) Kathryn Duckworth, Rodie Akerman, Leslie Morrison Gutman and John
Wider Benefits of Learning Research Report No.31
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This review explores the influences on progress and attainment in early and middle-childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. It provides a critical analysis of the different factors that influence low educational attainment, and identifies the questions that remain in dispute, based on a review of the literature on individual, family and school level factors. For the areas of influence defined, we then review some of the policy initiatives attempting to improve standards for this group of young people, and summarise the evidence on the extent of their impact. We conclude by summarising the evidence, reviewing its limitations and examining the implications for policy design.
Dr Kathryn Duckworth is a Post-Doctoral Fellow in the Department of Quantitative Social Science and a Research Associate at the Centre for Research on the Wider Benefits of Learning, both at the Institute of Education.
Rodie Akerman is Policy Research Officer at the Centre for Research on the Wider Benefits of Learning.
Dr Leslie Morrison Gutman is Research Director at the Centre for Research on the Wider Benefits of Learning.
Dr John Vorhaus is Director of the Centre for Research on the Wider Benefits of Learning.
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